The mangrove ecosystem in Delta Mahakam (East Kalimantan) is currently experiencing damage due to excessive land conversion into aquaculture, port infrastructure/pipeline/mining, and many more. As a result of changes in land use and excessive use of natural resources, mangrove ecosystems are rapidly decreased and damaged. Although mangroves are easy to recover, if the large scale of conversion continues without restoration effort, then the ability for restoring the ecosystem is low, that recoverable will be slow.
Ponds are one type of habitat that is used as a place for brackish water aquaculture activities in the estuary or coastal areas. Many pounds are found in the several orchards in East Kalimantan, which grow shrimp, crab, or fish. The average potential of aquaculture in East Kalimantan especially at Mahakam Delta is up to 500 kg per ha in a single harvest. But, that value of the economy degrading the mangroves. Every pond can hold 800-1600 seeds, according to Peatland and Mangrove Restoration Agency Program (BRGM Indonesia).
In damaged ecosystems, silvo-fishery systems can be conducted by planting mangroves in aquaculture ponds. That concept brings the aquaculture pond activities do not sacrifice the sustainability of mangrove ecosystems. Mangroves can help fertilize the pond, like an abrasion barrier, also as a natural feed for the cultivation of biota in the pond. The presence of mangroves in the pond is expected to increase pond production and farmers’ income. In addition, the right management strategy can help increase pond production so that farmer income will increase.
Titian using this concept in Muara Ulu Besar district to acknowledge the local community that mangroves in ponds are giving many functions, so they will not think again that mangrove disturbs the water quality.